The Attacks on Many Others

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Samuel Shaw United States Continental Navy Along with Third Lieutenant Richard Marven, midshipman Shaw was a key figures in the passage of the first whistleblower law passed in the United States by the Continental Congress.[1] During the Revolutionary War, the two naval officers blew the whistle on the torturing of British POWs by Commodore Esek Hopkins, the commander-in-chief of the Continental Navy.[2] The Continental Congress enacted the whistleblower protection law on July 30, 1778 by a unanimous vote.[3] In addition, it deeclared that the United States would defend the two against a libel suit filed against them by Hopkins [4]1893

Edmund Dene Morel Congo Free StateEnglish shipping clerk turned journalist who reported on the atrocities in the Congo Free State and became an anti-slavery campaigner. His revelations led to a strong campaign against Belgian King Leopold II‘s autocratic regime in his African territory, where the rubber plantations brutally exploited slave labor.[5]1933

Smedley Butler United States Marine CorpsRetired U.S. Marines Corps Major General, a two-time recipient of the Medal of Honor, who alleged to the McCormack-Dickstein Committee in the U.S. House of Representatives that business leaders had plotted a fascist coup d’état against the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration in what became known as the Business Plot. In his book War Is a Racket, Butler listed well-known US military operations that he alleged were not about protecting democracy as was told to the public but in furthering the business interests of U.S. banks and corporations. He compared these activities with Al Capone-style mob hits on behalf of American corporations and their respective business interests.[6]1942

Jan Karski Nazi GermanyPolish resistance fighter, who during World War II twice visited the Warsaw ghetto, and met with United States president Franklin Delano Roosevelt, with the UK Foreign Secretary, and with the Polish shadow government in London, to report what he had witnessed concerning conditions for Jewish people, and the extermination camps. His report was not taken seriously by any authority.[7][8]1960s – 1970s[edit]1963

John Paul Vann United States ArmyAmerican colonel, who, during the Vietnam War, reported to his superiors that American policy and tactics were seriously flawed, and later went to the media with his concerns. Vann was asked to resign his commission, did so, but later returned to Vietnam.[9]1966

Peter Buxtun United States Public Health ServiceExposed the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment.[10]1971

Daniel Ellsberg United States State DepartmentEllsberg was a former RAND Corp. military analyst who, along with Anthony Russo, leaked the Pentagon Papers, a secret account of the Vietnam War to The New York Times. The Pentagon Papers revealed endemic practices of deception by previous administrations, and contributed to the erosion of public support for the war. The release triggered a legal case concerning government efforts to prevent the publication of classified information that was heard by the U.S. Supreme Court (New York Times Co. v. United States (403 U.S. 713)). Ellsberg himself was the subject of retaliation by the Nixon Administration.1971

Frank Serpico New York Police DepartmentFormer New York City police officer who reported several of his fellow officers for bribery and related charges in front of the Knapp Commission probing police corruption in the NYPD. Serpico was the first police officer in the history of the NYPD to step forward to report and subsequently testify openly about widespread, systemic corruption payoffs amounting to millions of dollars.[11] The 1973 film Serpico is an account of his story.1971

Perry Fellwock National Security AgencyFormer NSA analyst who revealed the existence of the NSA and its worldwide covert surveillance network in an interview with Ramparts (magazine) in 1971.[12] At the time, the NSA was a little-known organization. Because of the Fellwock revelations, the U.S. Senate Church Committee introduced successful legislation to stop NSA spying on American citizens. Fellwock was motivated by Daniel Ellsberg’s release of the Pentagon Papers.[13]1972

W. Mark Felt Federal Bureau of InvestigationKnown only as Deep Throat until 2005, Felt was Associate Director of the FBI, the number-two job in the Bureau, when he leaked information about President Richard Nixon‘s involvement in the Watergate scandal.[14] The scandal would eventually lead to the resignation of the president, and prison terms for White House Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman and presidential adviser John Ehrlichman.1973

Stanley Adams Hoffmann-LaRocheA senior executive at Swiss pharmaceutical company Hoffman-LaRoche, Adams supplied evidence to European Economic Community regulators on the company’s price fixing in the international vitamin market.[15] The EEC revealed his name during the resulting investigation and Adams was arrested for industrial espionage by the Swiss government and spent six months in jail. He fought for ten years to clear his name and receive compensation from the EEC.1973

A. Ernest Fitzgerald United States Department of DefenseU.S. Department of Defense auditor who was fired in 1973 by President Richard M. Nixon[citation needed] for exposing to Congress the tidal wave of cost overruns associated with Lockheed’s C-5A cargo plane. After protracted litigation he was reinstated to the civil service and continued to report cost overruns and military contractor fraud, including discovery in the 1980s that the Air Force was being charged $400 for hammers and $600 for toilet seats. Fitzgerald retired from the Defense Department in 2006.[16]1974

Karen Silkwood Kerr-McGeeThere have been a number of nuclear power whistleblowers who have identified safety concerns at nuclear power plants. The first prominent nuclear power whistleblower was Karen Silkwood, who worked as a chemical technician at a Kerr-McGee nuclear plant. Silkwood became an activist in the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union in order to protest health and safety issues. In 1974, she testified to the United States Atomic Energy Commission about her concerns. A few months later she died in a car crash under mysterious conditions on the way to a meeting with a New York Times reporter and a national union leader. The 1983 film Silkwood is an account of this story.1976

Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard, and Dale G. Bridenbaugh General ElectricNuclear power whistleblowers. On February 2, 1976, (Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard, and Dale G. Bridenbaugh (known as the GE Three) “blew the whistle” on safety problems at nuclear power plants, and their action has been called “an exemplary instance of whistleblowing“.[17] The three engineers gained the attention of journalists and their disclosures about the threats of nuclear power had a significant impact. They timed their statements to coincide with their resignations from responsible positions in General Electric‘s nuclear energy division, and later established themselves as consultants on the nuclear power industry for state governments, federal agencies, and overseas governments. The consulting firm they formed, MHB Technical Associates, was technical advisor for the movie, The China Syndrome. The three engineers participated in Congressional hearings which their disclosures precipitated.[17][18][19][20]1977

Frank Snepp Central Intelligence AgencyCIA analyst at the US Embassy, Saigon who published Decent Interval in 1977 about Operation Frequent Wind and the failures of the CIA and other American entities to properly prepare for the Fall of Saigon. Although he redacted all names, methods, and sources from the book, after it was published, CIA Director Stansfield Turner had Snepp successfully prosecuted for breach of contract for violating his non-disclosure agreement.[21] Snepp lost all income, including royalties, from publication of the book, a verdict upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court.1980s[edit]1984

Clive Ponting United Kingdom Ministry of DefenceSenior civil servant in the UK Ministry of Defence who leaked classified documents to Labour Member of Parliament Tam Dalyell confirming that the General Belgrano was sunk by British forces during the Falklands War while outside the total exclusion zone, contradicting statements by the Thatcher Government.1984

John Michael Gravitt General ElectricBecame the first individual in 40 years to file a qui tam lawsuit under the False Claims Act after the statute had been weakened in 1943.[22] Gravitt, a machinist foreman, sued GE for defrauding the United States Department of Defense when GE began falsely billing for work on the B1 Lancer bomber. Gravitt was laid off following his complaints to supervisors about the discrepancies. The case of Gravitt v. General Electric and Gravitt’s deposition to Congress led to federal legislation bolstering the False Claims Act in 1986.[23][24] The amended Act made it easier for whistleblowers to collect damages. Gravitt’s suit proceeded under the 1986 amendments and GE settled the case for a then record $3.5 million.[25]1984

Duncan Edmonds Canadian GovernmentCanadian civil servant who reported to his chief, the top Canadian civil servant, that Minister of Defence Robert Coates had visited a West German strip club while on an official mission, with NATO documents in his possession, creating a security risk. Coates was asked to resign from Cabinet by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, who also fired Edmonds and made him persona non grata in government circles.[26]1984(?)

Ingvar Bratt Bofors Engineer who revealed himself as the anonymous source in the Bofors Scandal about illegal weapon exports.[27] An act that led to a new Swedish law[28] concerning company secrets which commonly is referred to as Lex Bratt.1985

Cathy Massiter MI5 Former MI5 officer who accused the British security service of having over-zealously interpreted which groups qualified as subversive, thus justifying surveillance against them. Massiter revealed that MI5 had spied on trade unions, civil liberty organisations and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.[29][30]1985

Ronald J. Goldstein EBASCO Constructors Inc.Nuclear power whistleblower Goldstein was a supervisor employed by EBASCO, which was a major contractor for the construction of Houston Lighting and Power Company‘s South Texas Project (a complex of two nuclear power plants). In the summer of 1985, Goldstein identified safety problems to SAFETEAM, an internal compliance program established by EBASCO and Houston Lighting, including noncompliance with safety procedures, the failure to issue safety compliance reports, and quality control violations affecting the safety of the plant. SAFETEAM was promoted as an independent safe haven for employees to voice their safety concerns. The two companies did not inform their employees that they did not believe complaints reported to SAFETEAM had any legal protection. After he filed his report to SAFETEAM, Goldstein was fired. Subsequently, Golstein filed suit under federal nuclear whistleblower statutes. The U.S. Department of Labor ruled that his submissions to SAFETEAM were protected and his dismissal was invalid, a finding upheld by Labor Secretary Lynn Martin. The ruling was appealed and overturned by the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals, which ruled that private programs offered no protection to whistleblowers. After Goldstein lost his case, Congress amended the federal nuclear whistleblower law to provide protection reports made to internal systems and prevent retaliation against whistleblowers.[31]1986

Mordechai Vanunu Israeli nuclear weapons programRevealed Israel’s clandestine nuclear program to the British press. He spent seventeen and a half years in prison as a result, the first eleven of these in solitary confinement. After his release, sanctions were placed on him: among others, he was not allowed to leave Israel or speak to foreigners. The sanctions have been renewed every twelve months. At present, he is appealing a further six-month prison sentence imposed by an Israeli court for having spoken to foreigners and foreign press.[32][33]1988

Peter Wright MI5 Former science officer of MI5 who claimed in his book, Spycatcher, that the UK Security Service plotted to remove Prime Minister Harold Wilson from office and the Director General of MI5 was a Soviet spy. After its publication in Australia, which the Thatcher government tried to block, the government attempted to ban the book in Britain under the Official Secrets Act. Through litigation, it succeeded in imposing a gag order on English newspapers to prevent them from publishing Wright’s allegations. The gag orders were upheld by the Law Lords.[34][35] Eventually, in 1988, the book was cleared for legitimate sale when the Law Lords acknowledged that overseas publication meant it contained no secrets.[36] However, Wright was barred from receiving royalties from the sale of the book in the United Kingdom. In November 1991, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the British government had breached the European Convention of Human Rights in gagging its own newspapers.[37][38] The British Government’s legal cost were estimated at £250,000 in 1987.[39]1988

Roland Gibeault Genisco Technology Gibeault filed a qui tam lawsuit against defense subcontractor Genisco Technology Corp. after working undercover for 18 months with the FBI and DCIS to uncover the company’s fraudulent test methods which were being used to pass key components off on the High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) missile. The FBI and DCIS case resulted in a plea-bargained $725,000 fine and three Genisco executives being sent to federal prison.[40][41] Gibeault, who was fired from Genisco following revelation of whistleblowing, received $131,250 of the fine.[42] In 1989, Gibeault and fellow employee Inge Maudal also filed qui tam actions against Genisco’s parent company, Texas Instruments.[43]1989

Douglas D. Keeth United Technologies Corporation Filed a qui tam lawsuit against United Technologies Corp. (UTX) where he held the title vice president of finance. Mr. Keeth and others had investigated billing practices at UTX’s Sikorsky Aircraft division, uncovering inflated progress billings going back at least as far as 1982. UTX offered Mr. Keeth a $1 million severance payment if he would keep quiet, but Keeth rejected the offer. In 1994, UTX paid $150 million to the government and Keeth was awarded a bounty of $22.5 million.[44]1989

William Schumer Hughes AircraftFiled a lawsuit January 1989 alleging fraud by Hughes Aircraft with respect to the B-2 bomber. In 1997 the Supreme Court held that the claim should have been dismissed as based on invalid retroactive legislation because the alleged fraud occurred in 1982-1984, before the 1986 amendments to the Fraudulent Claims Act which might have permitted it. The government did not support Schumer in his lawsuit as it had determined the alleged fraud had actually benefited the government by shifting costs from the cost-plus B-2 contract to the fixed-price F-15 contract.[45]1989

Myron Mehlman MobilA toxicologist, he warned managers at Mobil that the company’s gasoline that was being sold in Japan contained benzene in excess of 5 percent, and that levels needed to be reduced. Upon his return to the United States, he was fired. He later successfully sued the company.[46]1990s[edit]1990

Arnold Gundersen Nuclear Energy ServicesNuclear power whistleblower Arnold Gundersen discovered radioactive material in an accounting safe at Nuclear Energy Services (NES) in Danbury, Connecticut, the consulting firm where he held a $120,000-a-year job as senior vice president.[47] Three weeks after he notified the company president of what he believed to be radiation safety violations, Gundersen was fired. According to The New York Times, for three years, Gundersen “was awakened by harassing phone calls in the middle of the night” and he “became concerned about his family’s safety”. Gundersen believes he was blacklisted, harassed and fired for doing what he thought was right.[47] NES filed a $1.5 million defamation lawsuit against him that was settled out-of-court. A U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission report concluded that there had been irregularities at NES, and the Office of the Inspector General reported that the NRC had violated its own regulations by sending business to NES.[48]1990s

Joanna Gualtieri Canadian GovernmentCanadian whistleblower[49] who exposed lavish extravagance in the purchase of accommodation abroad for staff in Foreign Affairs. The Inspector General and Auditor General of Canada later supported her allegations. Gualtieri claimed the Bureau seemed not to care, that her bosses harassed her for raising the concerns and that she was a given dead-end job after coming forward. Ms. Gualtieri sued her former bosses for harassment. This lawsuit has been vigorously defended by government lawyers and has dragged in the courts for over 10 years.[citation needed]1992

Mark Whitacre Archer Daniels MidlandPhD scientist and former Divisional President with Archer Daniels Midland, who worked with the FBI as a secret informant, to blow the whistle on price-fixing cartel in his company. This story is featured in the film The Informant!.[citation needed]1994-95

William Sanjour United States Environmental Protection AgencyWhistleblower at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for over 20 years who also wrote on whistleblower protection issues.[50] He won a landmark lawsuit against the federal government which established the First Amendment rights of federal employees to “blow the whistle” on their employer.[Sanjour v. EPA,56 F.3d 85 (D.C. Cir. 1995)(en banc)]1996

George Galatis Nuclear power industryNuclear power whistleblower George Galatis was a senior nuclear engineer who reported safety problems at the Millstone 1 Nuclear Power Plant, relating to reactor refueling procedures, in 1996.[51][52] The unsafe procedures meant that spent fuel rod pools at Unit 1 had the potential to boil, possibly releasing radioactive steam.[53] Galatis eventually took his concerns to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to find that they had “known about the unsafe procedures for years”. As a result of going to the NRC, Galatis experienced “subtle forms of harassment, retaliation, and intimidation”.[52][54] The NRC Office of Inspector General investigated this episode and essentially agreed with Galatis in Case Number 95-771, the report of which tells the whole story.[55] George Galatis was the subject of a Time magazine cover story on March 4, 1996.[54] Millstone 1 was permanently closed in July 1998.1996

Jeffrey Wigand Brown & WilliamsonJeffrey Wigand had been recently fired from his position as vice president of research and development at tobacco company Brown & Williamson when, on February 4, 1996, he stated on the CBS news program 60 Minutes that the company intentionally manipulated the level of nicotine in cigarette smoke to addict smokers. Wigand claims that he was subsequently harassed and received anonymous death threats. He was portrayed by Russell Crowe in the 1999 film The Insider.1996

Allan Cutler Canadian governmentThe first whistleblower on the Canadian “AdScam” or sponsorship scandal. Without legal protection, he was fired by the Canadian government. As the case developed, federal legislation was passed to protect future whistleblowers in the Canadian civil service. Several convictions have been recorded to date with the case, with proceedings still in progress.1996

Gary Webb Central Intelligence Agency Webb’s “Dark Alliance,” a 20,000 word, three-part investigative series alleged that Nicaraguan drug traffickers had sold and distributed crack cocaine in Los Angeles during the 1980s, and that drug profits were used to fund the CIA-supported Nicaraguan Contras. Webb never asserted that the CIA directly aided drug dealers to raise money for the Contras, but he did document that the CIA was aware of the cocaine transactions and the large shipments of cocaine into the U.S. by the Contra personnel. In 2004, Webb was found dead from two gunshot wounds to the head, which the coroner’s office judged a suicide.1996

David Franklin Parke-Davis Exposed illegal promotion of the epilepsy drug Neurontin for un-approved uses while withholding evidence that the drug was not effective for these conditions. Parke-Davis’s new owners Pfizer eventually pleaded guilty and paid criminal and civil fines of $430 million. The case had widespread effects including: establishing a new standards for pharmaceutical marketing practices; broadening the use of the False Claims Act to make fraudulent marketing claims criminal violations; exposing complicity and active participation in fraud by renowned physicians; and demonstrating how medical literature had been systematically adulterated by the pharmaceutical industry and its paid clinical consultants. Under the False Claims Act Dr Franklin receives $24.6m as part of the settlement agreement.[citation needed]1997

Frederic Whitehurst Federal Bureau of Investigation A chemist at the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation who was the FBI Laboratory’s foremost expert on explosives residue in the 1990s, and became the first modern-day FBI whistleblower. He reported a lack of scientific standards and serious flaws in the FBI Lab, including in the first World Trade Center bombing cases and the Oklahoma City bombing case. Whitehurst’s whistleblower disclosures triggered an overhaul of the FBI’s crime lab following a report by the U.S. Department of Justice Inspector General in 1997. Dr. Whitehust filed a federal lawsuit claiming whistleblower retaliation, and he reached a settlement with the FBI worth more than $1.16 million.[56] Whitehurst now directs the FBI Oversight Project of the National Whistleblower Center.1997

David Shayler MI5 Along with girlfriend Annie Machon, resigned from MI5 to expose alleged criminal acts by the UK Secret Services, including a failed assassination attempt on Muammar Gaddafi. Shayler also accused the Security Services of planting false stories in the press, substantiated in one example by a court.[57]1997

Christoph Meili UBS A night guard at a Swiss bank, he discovered that his employer was destroying records of savings by Holocaust victims, which the bank was required to return to heirs of the victims. After the Swiss authorities sought to arrest Meili, he was given political asylum in the United States.[58][59]1998

Shiv Chopra Canadian government This section requires expansion. (January 2011)A microbiologist and activist who was involved in one of the first major whistleblowing incidents in the Canadian public service.1998

Paul van Buitenen European Commission Accused European Commission members of corruption. (See Resignation of the Santer Commission).1998

Rita Pal United Kingdom National Health Service. (January 2011)UK NHS Whistleblower. Raised issues of patient neglect on Ward 87 North Staffordshire NHS Trust Stoke-on-Trent. Professor Steve Bolsin’s report[60] and 2001 Internal Report into the ward is detailed.[61] Concerns raised with the General Medical Council UK but investigation reversed on the whistleblower. The GMC raised the spectre of mental illness to discredit the whistleblowing issues. Dr Pal subsequently sued in libel.[62] R Pal v General Medical Council, Sarah Bedwell, Peter Lynn and Catherine Green is the first libel case in the history of the GMC and Dr Pal won on strike out and settled by a whistleblower. Dr Pal have also whistleblown in the London Sunday Times 2 April 2000[63]1998

Marc Hodler International Olympic CommitteeIOC member who blew the whistle on the Winter Olympic bid scandal for the 2002 Salt Lake City games.1998

Linda Tripp Clinton AdministrationFormer White House staff member who disclosed to the Office of Independent Counsel that Monica Lewinsky committed perjury and attempted to suborn perjury, and President Bill Clinton committed misconduct, by denying the Clinton-Lewinsky relationship in the Paula Jones federal civil rights suit. A victim of retaliation by the Clinton Administration, Tripp successfully sued the Department of Defense and the Justice Department for releasing information from her security file and employment file to the news media in violation of the Privacy Act of 1974. In 2003, Tripp settled with the federal government for over $595,000. In addition, she received a retroactive promotion and retroactive pay for the years 1998, 1999, and 2000, a pension and was cleared to work for the federal government again.[64]1999

Harry Markopolos Early whistleblower of suspected securities fraud by Bernard Madoff, tipping off the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) repeatedly.1990s-2000s

Marlene Garcia-Esperat Philippines Department of AgricultureFormer analytical chemist for the Philippines Department of Agriculture who became a journalist to expose departmental corruption, and was murdered in 2005. Her assailants later surrendered to police, and have testified that they were hired by officials in the Department of Agriculture.[citation needed]1990s-2000s

Janet Howard, Tanya Ward Jordan and Joyce E. Megginson United States Department of CommerceExposed widespread systemic racism and retaliation within the Department of Commerce against African-American employees.[65]2000s[edit]2000s

Karen Kwiatkowski United States Air ForceRetired lieutenant colonel in the U.S. Air Force who worked as a desk officer in The Pentagon and in a number of roles in the National Security Agency. She has written a number of essays on corrupting political influences of military intelligence leading up to the invasion of Iraq in 2003, and has said that she was the anonymous source for Seymour Hersh and Warren Strobel on their exposés of pre-war intelligence.[citation needed]2000

Marsha Coleman-Adebayo United States Environmental Protection AgencyMarsha Coleman-Adebayo was a Senior Policy Analyst in the Office of the Administrator at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). She blew the whistle on the EPA for racial and gender discrimination in violation of Civil Rights Act of 1964 which began after she was removed from her position in South Africa where her “job was to essentially help the South African government to work on issues that impact public health”.[66] In South Africa she brought to the attention of the EPA the dangerous conditions an American company was exposing African workers to who were mining vanadium, a dangerous substance. Her case eventually led to the passing of the No-FEAR Act in 2002 that makes federal agencies more accountable for employee complaints.[66]2001

Joseph Nacchio Qwest /National Security AgencyNacchio was chairperson and CEO of Qwest when it refused to participate in NSA spying on its customers in February 2001. Qwest was the only telecommunications company to not require FISA court orders. Nacchio claims that in retaliation, Qwest subsequently was denied government contracts.[67]2001

Pascal Diethelm (see French Wikipedia), Jean-Charles Rielle (see French Wikipedia)Philip Morris USA and University of GenevaSwiss tobacco control advocates and alumni from the University of Geneva who revealed the secret ties of Ragnar Rylander (see French Wikipedia), professor of environmental health, to the tobacco industry. In a public statement made in 2001, Pascal Diethelm and Jean-Charles Rielle accused Rylander of being “secretly employed by Philip Morris” and qualified of “scientific fraud without precedent” the concealment of his links with the tobacco industry for a period of 30 years, during which he publicly presented himself as an independent scientist, while obeying orders given by Philip Morris executives and lawyers, publishing articles and organizing symposia which denied or trivialized the toxicity of secondhand smoke. After a long trial, which went up to the supreme court of Switzerland, all accusations were found to be true.[68] Following this judgment, the University of Geneva prohibited its members from soliciting research subsidies or direct or indirect consultancies with the tobacco industry.[69]2001

Jesselyn Radack United States Department of JusticeRadack, a DOJ lawyer, told Newsweek that the DOJ both lied about and destroyed documents regarding John Walker Lindh‘s interrogation and his parent’s attempts to get him a lawyer. The DOJ retaliated by pushing her out of the Department, getting her fired from her next job, trying to get her law licence revoked, & other means.2002

Kathryn Bolkovac United Nations International PoliceOriginally hired by the U.S. company DynCorp as part of a $15 million U.N. contract to hire and train police officers for duty in Bosnia. She eventually reported that such officers were paying for prostitutes and participating in sex-trafficking.[70] Many of these were forced to resign under suspicion of illegal activity, but none have been prosecuted, as they also enjoy immunity from prosecution in Bosnia.[71][72] Bolkovac filed a lawsuit[73] in Great Britain against DynCorp for unfair dismissal due to a protected disclosure (whistleblowing), and on 2 August 2002 the tribunal unanimously found in her favor.[74]2002

Cynthia Cooper WorldcomExposed corporate financial scandal. Jointly named Time’s People of the Year in 2002.2002

Sherron Watkins EnronExposed corporate financial scandal. Jointly named Time’s People of the Year in 2002.2002

Coleen Rowley Federal Bureau of InvestigationOutlined the FBI’s slow action prior to the September 11, 2001 attacks. Jointly named Time’s People of the Year in 2002.2002

William BinneyJ. Kirke WiebeEdward Loomis National Security AgencyNSA officials initially joined House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence staffer Diane Roark in asking U.S. Department of Defense inspector general to investigate wasteful spending on the Trailblazer Project and the NSA officials eventually went public when they were ignored and retaliated upon. They claim that Thinthread was more focused thus more effective and lower cost than Trailblazer and subsequent programs, which automatically collected trillions of domestic communications of Americans in deliberate violation of the U.S. Constitution.2002

Marta Andreasen European CommissionArgentine-born Spanish accountant, employed by the European Commission as Chief Accountant, and notable for raising concerns about fraud potential within EU, neglected by the Commission.2002

Glenn WalpSteven L. Doran University of California Los Alamos National LaboratoryGlenn Walp and Steven L. Doran were hired to investigate allegations of fraud at the University of California’s Los Alamos National Laboratory. They were fired after they exposed breaches of security as well as fraud and mismanagement to the Department of Energy. Their investigation resulted in congressional hearings. Walpo received a $930,000 settlement from the University of California (UC) for wrongful termination.[75] Doran accepted UC’s offer of a position as security consultant.[76]2002

Sibel Edmonds Federal Bureau of InvestigationFormer FBI translator naturalized American citizen of Turkish descent who was fired in 2002 by the FBI for attempting to report coverups of security issues, potential espionage, and incompetence. She has been gagged by the State Secrets Privilege in her efforts to go to court on these issues, including a rejection recently by the Supreme Court of the United States to hear her case without comment. She is now founder of the National Security Whistleblowers Coalition (NSWBC) that is looking to lobby congress and help other whistleblowers with legal and other forms of assistance.[citation needed]2003

Diane Urquhart Canadian GovernmentFormer senior securities industry executive who revealed to the Canadian House of Commons’s finance committee that Canadian frozen non-bank asset-backed commercial paper caused a loss of $7–$13 billion held primarily by government, corporation pension funds and treasuries.[77]2003

Katharine Gun United Kingdom GCHQLeaked top-secret information to the press concerning alleged illegal activities by the United States and the United Kingdom in their push for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.2003

Robert MacLean United States Transportation Security AdministrationU.S. Federal Air Marshal who exposed the TSA’s agency-wide plan to remove Federal Air Marshals from nonstop, long distance flights for two months in order to avoid expenditures associated with air marshals lodging in hotels overnight. The plan was formulated in response to a budget shortfall due to overspending. The plan was formulated three days after the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued an Advisory that warned the airline industry and law enforcement of a suicide hijacking plot in which terrorists would exploit U.S. immigration and airport security loopholes. After outrage from U.S. Senators Hillary Rodham Clinton,[78] Charles Schumer,[79] Barbara Boxer,[80] and Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney,[81] TSA’s plan was rescinded before becoming operational. MacLean was fired after DHS discovered he disclosed the plan.[82]2003

Babak Pasdar United States GovernmentComputer security consultant performing contract work for a major telecom carrier, revealed that a U.S. government office in Quantico, Virginia had direct, high-speed access to a major wireless carrier’s systems, exposing customers’ voicecalls, data packets and physical movements to uncontrolled surveillance. Pasdar executed a seven-page affidavit for the nonprofit Government Accountability Project in Washington.[citation needed]2003

Vijay Bahadur Singh India Ministry of Finance material may be challenged and removed. (January 2011)Observed that manipulation was being committed by senior officers of the Finance Ministry and Senior Counsel. This was to protect an economic offender from detention in a matter pending in Delhi High Court. The email was forwarded, resulting in an issuance of memorandum to him by Commissioner of Customs (Exports), Mumbai. His brother was killed in a road accident on 6 April 2003 after he submitted a reply to the memorandum. Mr. P. Chidambaram, the present Home Minister of India, defended the economic offender in Supreme Court of India in SLP No. 1615/2003. Singh had the Navleen Kumar Award conferred on him in 2004 by PCGT for working towards a corruption free society. He has since been victimized by senior officers of Customs and two charge sheets have been issued to him. He has opted for voluntary retirement from service in order to further expose corruption in the department.2003

Joseph Wilson United States Government Former U.S. ambassador, whose editorial in The New York Times, “What I Didn’t Find In Africa”,[83] showed reasons for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.2003

Richard Convertino United States Department of JusticeFormer federal prosecutor who obtained the first conviction of a defendant in a terrorism case post-9/11. After Convertino testified before the U.S. Senate Finance Committee in September 2003 about the lack of Bush Administration support of anti-terrorism prosecutions post-9/11, Convertino alleges the Justice Department leaked information and violated a court order to publicly smear him in retaliation for his whistleblowing. Additionally, the Justice Department indicted Convertino for obstruction of justice and lying, which Convertino alleges is further whistleblower retaliation.[citation needed]2003

Satyendra Dubey India National Highways AuthorityAccused his employer NHAI of corruption in highway construction projects in India, in letter to Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee. Assassinated on November 27, 2003. Enormous media coverage following his death may lead to Whistleblower Act in India.[citation needed]2004

Julia Davis United States Department of Homeland SecurityReported a breach of national security at the San Ysidro Port of Entry on 4 July 2004, related to the admission of 23 improperly-processed subjects from terrorist countries into the U.S. via the land border with Mexico.[84] In retaliation for her report to the FBI (JTTF), Julia Davis endured two malicious prosecutions, two false imprisonments, 54 investigations, years of warrantless surveillance and a Blackhawk helicopter raid of her home by the Department of Homeland Security. Files found[85] within Osama Bin Laden‘s compound in 2011 confirmed that 4 July/Independence Day was in fact a date of planned terrorist attacks on the United States,[85] potentially confirming the validity of Julia Davis’ official reports to the FBI/JTTF that have been closed with “no action” and without any investigation.2004

Joe Darby United States ArmyFirst alerted the U.S. military command of prisoner abuse in the Abu Ghraib prison, in Abu Ghraib, Iraq.2004

Hans-Peter Martin European ParliamentAccused Parliament members of invalid expense claims.[citation needed]2004

Craig Murray United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth OfficeBritish Ambassador to Uzbekistan who opposed the Karimov regime’s use of torture and its other violations of human rights, and British Government support for the use of torture.2004

Gerald W. Brown Nuclear power industryNuclear power whistleblower Gerald W. Brown was a former firestop contractor and consultant who uncovered the Thermo-lag circuit integrity scandal and silicone foam scandals in U.S. and Canadian nuclear power plants, which led to Congressional proceedings as well as Provincial proceedings in the Canadian Province of Ontario concerning deficiencies in passive fire protection.2004

David Graham Discovered that the pain-reliever Vioxx increased the risk of cardiovascular problems, spoke out against the policies of the Food and Drug Administration, and succeeded in convincing the FDA to require large warning labels on Vioxx packaging.2004

Samuel Provance United States ArmySystem administrator for U.S. Army Military Intelligence at the Abu Ghraib prison who publicly revealed the role of interrogators in the abuses, as well the general effort to cover-up the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse itself.2004

Peter Rost PfizerFormer vice president at the pharmaceutical company that reported about accounting irregularities and other irregularities to the US authorities. In response to his whistleblowing he was exiled internally by Pfizer and removed from all responsibilities and decision making. In 2004, he testified in Congress as a private individual in favour of drug reimportation, a position strongly at odds with the official policy.

Toni Hoffman Queensland Health, AustraliaToni Hoffman is an senior Australian nurse who exposed the medical malpractice of surgeon Jayant Patel. She originally began to raise doubts about the ability of Patel with hospital management and other staff. Both doctors and surgeons who were familiar with his work were also deeply concerned. Patel became the subject of the Morris Inquiry and later the Davies Commission. Eventually the matter was raised in the Queensland Parliament. Hoffman received the 2006 Australian of the Year Local Hero Award and an Order of Australia Medal, for her role as a whistleblower.[86][87]2005

Russ Tice United States GovernmentFormer intelligence analyst for the National Security Agency (NSA), the U.S. Air Force, the Office of Naval Intelligence, and the Defense Intelligence Agency. Tice first approached Congress and eventually the media about the warrantless surveillance of the US population by the NSA. Tice was a major source for the 2005 New York Times exposé and spoke out widely following subsequent disclosures by other NSA whistleblowers. He was the first to speak publicly and openly with allegations during the era beginning with the George W. Bush administration (which continues into the Obama administration). He had earlier been known for reporting suspicions that a DIA colleague of his might be a Chinese spy.[88]2005

Maria do Rosàrio Veiga World Meteorological OrganizationEnquired about a fraud, wrote a final report in 2005. Chief IAIS 2002/nov2006, terminated by the WMO.,[89][90][91]2005-2011

Thomas Andrews Drake National Security AgencyThomas Drake worked at the NSA in various analyst and management positions. He blew the whistle on the NSA’s Trailblazer project that he felt was a violation of the Fourth Amendment and other laws and regulations. He contacted The Baltimore Sun which published articles about waste, fraud, and abuse at the NSA, including stories about Trailblazer. In April 2010, Drake was indicted by a grand jury on various charges, including obstructing justice and making false statements. After the May 22, 2011 broadcast of a 60 Minutes episode on the Drake case, the government dropped all of the charges against Drake and agreed not to seek any jail time in return for Drake’s agreement to plead guilty to a misdemeanor of misusing the agency’s computer system. Drake was sentenced to one year of probation and community service.2005

Bunnatine “Bunny” H. Greenhouse HalliburtonFormer chief civilian contracting officer for the United States Army Corps of Engineers who exposed illegality in the no-bid contracts for reconstruction in Iraq by a Halliburton subsidiary.[92]2005-2009

Brad Birkenfeld UBSAn American banker who formerly worked for UBS, Switzerland’s largest bank, he was the first person who exposed what has become a multi-billion dollar international tax fraud scandal over Swiss private banking.[93][94] He provided extensive and voluntary cooperation with the U.S. government, registering as an IRS whistleblower, Birkenfeld is the only U.S. citizen to be sentenced to prison as a result of the scandal.[95]2005

Thomas Tamm United States Department of JusticeAttorney for the DOJ’s Office of Intelligence Policy and Review who initially informed The New York Times for the story that became a 2005 exposé on mass warrantless surveillance. His home was raided in 2007 during FBI investigation of the leaks and he began to openly speak out publicly in 2008.2005

Shawn Carpenter Sandia National Laboratories Discovered that a sophisticated group of hackers were systematically penetrating hundreds of computer networks at major U.S. defense contractors, military installations and government agencies to access sensitive information. After informing his superiors at Sandia, he was directed not to share the information with anyone, because management cared only about Sandia’s computers. He, however, went on to voluntarily work with the U.S. Army and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to address the problem. When Sandia discovered his actions, they terminated his employment and revoked his security clearance. His story was first reported in the September 5, 2005, issue of Time. On February 13, 2007, a New Mexico State Court awarded him $4.7 million in damages from Sandia Corporation for firing him. The jury found Sandia Corporation’s handling of Mr. Carpenter’s firing was “malicious, willful, reckless, wanton, fraudulent, or in bad faith.“2005

Rick S. Piltz National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationExposed Philip Cooney, a White House official who edited a climate change report to reflect the administration’s views without having any scientific background.[citation needed]2005

Shanmughan Manjunath  Indian Oil CorporationFormer manager at Indian Oil Corporation Ltd (IOCL), and spoke against adulteration of petrol. He was shot dead on November 19, 2005, allegedly by a petrol pump owner from Uttar Pradesh.[citation needed]2005

Paul Moore HBOSExecutive at the UK bank HBOS who in 2005 was fired, allegedly after warning his senior colleagues that the company’s sales strategy was at odds with prudent management. In 2009 Moore spoke out about his warnings to the Treasury Select Committee of parliament during its investigation into the turmoil in the UK banking system.[96]2006

Michael J. Nappe University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (January 2011)Raised issues about the payment of millions of dollars of bills without purchase orders or supporting documentation by UMDNJ in New Jersey. He also exposed an internal billing scheme involving the use of “dummy invoices” to charge internal departments with a markup without their knowledge or approval.[Source: Newark Star Ledger and Associated Press, November 2006] Nappe also exposed his subordinate who was running a personal business with the University’s cell phone account. [Source: Newark Star Ledger, January 2011] Nappe was also mentioned in a NY Times Best Seller, “The Soprano State, New Jersey’s Culture of Corruption” for his efforts to institute reforms, and the retaliations he endured as a result of being honest and accountable for taxpayer money. To humiliate him, his employer assigned his office to a lunch room and stripped him of his staff. [Source: Newark Star Ledger, November 2006] He became known internationally as “The Man in the Lunch Room”. Additionally, the director of UMDNJ’s legal management ordered any department responsible for investigating Nappe’s disclosures to not investigate them and submit them to his office, where they remained inactive. [Anonymous Sources: UMDNJ Compliance Department, UMDNJ Legal Department, UMDNJ Human Resources Department, UMDNJ Department of Informations Systems and Technology] Six months after the University “resolved the issue with Mr. Nappe”, several of Nappe’s allegations were proven to be true.[97]2006

Gary J. Aguirre United States Securities and Exchange CommissionExposed the SEC’s failure to pursue investigation of John Mack in insider trading case involving Pequot Capital Management and Arthur J. Samberg. Aguirre was fired for complaining about special treatment for Mack, which prompted investigations by the Senate Finance Committee and the Senate Judiciary Committee, culminating in a joint report vindicating Aguirre. Through his FOIA request filed to learn more about his wrongful termination, he uncovered the “smoking gun” that forced the SEC to re-open its case against Pequot, leading to a settlement of $28 million in 2009. A month later, the SEC settled Aguirre’s lawsuit for wrongful termination, paying $755,000. Aguirre also won a lawsuit against the SEC filed in District Court.[98][99]2006

Walter DeNino Student and lab technician who questioned Eric Poehlman‘s integrity.[100]2006

Marco Pautasso World Intellectual Property OrganizationWIPO Senior Auditor blew the whistle on fraud and attempted fraud committed by WIPO Director-General Kamil Idris in November 2006[101][not in citation given].[102] Worked at WIPO from 2003 to 11/2006; now consultant.2006

Mark Klein AT&T, National Security AgencyRetired communications technician for AT&T who revealed the details of the secret 2003 construction of a monitoring facility in Room 641A of 611 Folsom Street in San Francisco, the site of a large SBC phone building, three floors of which are occupied by AT&T. The facility is alleged to be one of several operated by the National Security Agency as part of the warrantless surveillance undertaken by the Bush administration in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.[103]2006

Cate Jenkins United States Environmental Protection AgencyWrote memos to the EPA Inspector General, U.S. Congress, and FBI detailing the chemical composition of dust from the September 11 attacks and its hazards to responders. She alerted the The New York Times in 2006[104] and said in a 2009 CBS interview[105] that the EPA explicitly lied about the danger of the dust which caused chemical burns in the lungs of responders, debilitating illnesses in many that included fatalities, and that it could have been prevented with proper safety equipment. Jenkins claims that the EPA has been misleading about evidence of debris inhalation hazards since the 1980s. She was fired and in 2012 successfully sued to be reinstated,[106] but in 2013 was again terminated.[107]2006-07

Richard M. Bowen III CitigroupStarting in June 2006, Senior Vice President Richard M. Bowen III, the chief underwriter of Citigroup’s Consumer Lending Group, began warning the board of directors about the extreme risks being taken on by the mortgage operation that could potentially result in massive losses. When Bowen first blew the whistle in 2006, 60% of the mortgages were defective. The amount of bad mortgages began increasing throughout 2007 and eventually exceeded 80% of the volume. Many of the mortgages were not only defective, but were fraudulent. Bowen attempted to rouse the board via weekly reports and other communications. On 3 November 2007, Bowen emailed Citigroup Chairman Robert Rubin and the bank’s chief financial officer, chief auditor and the chief risk management officer to again expose the risk and potential losses, and claiming that the group’s internal controls had broken down. He requested an outside investigation of his business unit that eventually confirmed his charges. In retaliation, Citigroup stripped Bowen of most of his responsibilities and informing him that his physical presence was no longer required at the bank.[108][109]2006-13

Adam B. Resnick OmnicareStarting in 2006, Resnick sued the pharmaceutical company Omnicare, a major supplier of drugs to nursing homes, under federal whistleblower law, as well as the parties to the company’s illegal kickback schemes. Omnicare allegedly paid kickbacks to nursing home operators in order to secure business, which constitutes Medicare and Medicaid fraud. In 2010, Omnicare settled a False Claims Act suit filed by Resnick and taken up by the U.S. Department of Justice by paying $19.8 million to the federal government, while the two nursing homes involved in the scheme settled for $14 million.[110][111] A second whistleblower lawsuit filed against Omnicare it by Resnick and Total Pharmacy Services V.P. Maureen Nehls related to kickbacks that were part of its 2004 acquisition of Total Pharmacy Services was settled for $17.2 million by Omnicare and $5 million by the Total Pharmacy owners.[112][113]2007

Justin Hopson New Jersey State PoliceDuring his first few days as a rookie New Jersey State Trooper, Hopson witnessed an unlawful arrest and false report made by his training officer. When he refused to testify in support of the illegal arrest, he was subjected to hazing and harassment by his fellow troopers. He uncovered evidence of a secret society within the State Police known as the Lords of Discipline, whose mission it was to keep fellow troopers in line. Trooper Hopson blew the whistle on the Lords of Discipline, which sparked the largest internal investigation in State Police history. Hopson filed a federal lawsuit alleging that after Hopson refused to support the arrest, he was physically assaulted, received threatening notes, and his car was vandalized while on duty. In 2007, the State of New Jersey agreed to a $400,000 settlement with Hopson.2007

John Kiriakou Central Intelligence AgencyIn an interview to ABC News on December 10, CIA officer Kiriakou disclosed that the agency waterboarded detainees and that this constituted torture. He was convicted of releasing classified information and sentenced, on January 25, 2013, to 30 months imprisonment. Having served the first months of his service he wrote an open letter describing the inhuman circumstances at the correction facility.[114]2008

Anat Kamm Israeli Defense ForceLeaked documents to the media that revealed the IDF had been engaging in extrajudicial killings.[115] While serving as an assistant in the Central Command bureau, Kamm secretly copied classified documents that she leaked to the Israeli Haaretz journalist Uri Blau after her military service was over. The leak suggested that the IDF had defied a court ruling against assassinating wanted militants in the West Bank who could potentially be arrested safely.[116][117] Kamm was convicted of espionage and providing confidential information without authorization.2008

Rudolf Elmer Julius BärA long-term employee of the Swiss bank whose final position entailed overseeing its Caribbean operations until he was terminated in 2002, Elmer blew the whistle on Julius Bär in 2008 when he gave secret documents to WikiLeaks. The documents detailed Julius Bär’s activities in the Cayman Islands and alleged tax evasion. Convicted in Switzerland in January 2011, he was rearrested immediately for having distributed illegally obtained data to WikiLeaks. Julius Bär alleges that Elmer has doctored evidence to suggest the tax evasion.[118][119][120][121][122]2008-2012

Robert J. McCarthy United States Government Robert J. McCarthy served as Field Solicitor for the U.S. Department of the Interior and as General Counsel, U.S. Section, International Boundary and Water Commission. The Oklahoma Bar Association honored him in 2008 with its Fern Holland Courageous Lawyer Award for helping to expose the Interior Department’s mismanagement of $3.5 billion in Indian trust resources. In 2009, McCarthy disclosed massive fraud, waste and abuse by the IBWC, that imperiled the health and safety of millions of people on both sides of the U.S.- Mexico border and seriously damaged the border ecosystem. In both cases he was forced from government service, but continued to advocate for the victims of government abuse. In addition, his scholarly publications have revealed the fatal flaws in whistleblower protection laws, as well as the need for radical reform of specific government agencies.[123]2009

Hervé Falciani HSBC’s Swiss subsidiary HSBC Private BankSince 2009 he has been collaborating with numerous European nations by providing information relating to more than 130,000 suspected tax evaders with Swiss bank accounts – specifically those with accounts in HSBC’s Swiss subsidiary HSBC Private Bank2009

Wendell Potter CIGNAFormer head of corporate communications at CIGNA, one of the nation’s largest health insurance companies. He testified against the HMO industry in the US Senate as a whistleblower.[124][125]2009

Michael Paul California Administrative Office of the CourtsFormer senior technical analyst of the Judicial Council of California, Administrative Office of the Courts publicly disclosed that tens of millions of dollars worth of overpriced construction work was being steered to unlicensed contractors in a bid rigging scheme that involved his employer and public funds. After Mr. Paul went public with his allegations as well as his previous requests to his employer for a qui tam release required under the state’s false claims act, the California Administrative Office of the Courts filed suit to recover a fraction of the monies paid to the unlicensed contractors, demoted Mr. Paul and extended the terms of the underlying contracts, contracts that are deemed void under the California Business & Professions Code. In response, Mr. Paul filed a taxpayer lawsuit in San Francisco Superior Court to recover all of the false claims paid and to enjoin the California Administrative Office of the Courts from wasting taxpayer funds. He was promptly fired in violation of the California False Claims Act, the California Whistleblower Protection Act and the California Labor Code.

Cathy Harris United States Customs ServiceA former United States Customs Service employee who exposed rampant racial profiling against Black travellers while working at Hartsfield International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia. According to Harris’s book, Flying While Black: A Whistleblower’s Story, she personally observed numerous incidents of Black travellers being stopped, frisked, body-cavity-searched, detained for hours at local hospitals, forced to take laxatives, bowel-monitored and subjected to public and private racist/colorist humiliation. The book also details her allegations of mismanagement, abuses of authority, prohibited personnel practices, waste, fraud, violation of laws, rules and regulations, corruption, nepotism, cronyism, favoritism, workplace violence, racial and sexual harassment, sexism, intimidation, on and off the job stalking, etc., and other illegal acts that occurs daily to federal employees especially female federal employees at U.S. Customs and other federal agencies.2009

Donald Merino Stevens Institute of TechnologyExposed the institute for abuse of the endowment, keeping multiple sets of books, misleading of the board and illegal low interest loans to the president.[citation needed]2009

Ramin Pourandarjani Iranian GovernmentAn Iranian physician who reported on the state use of torture on political prisoners. He died of poisoning shortly thereafter.[126]2009Virgil GrandfieldCanadian Red Cross

Virgil Grandfield is a Canadian whistleblower and international aid worker. In 1999-2000, he worked with a project evaluation unit for the Disasters Emergency Committee (the UK funding agency for disasters) in Central America after Hurricane Mitch. He became an Overseas Delegate for the Canadian Red Cross in 2002, after serving as Red Cross team leader on floods on the Blood Reserve in Standoff, Alberta. In 2003-2004 he researched a cover story on migrant worker issues on the U.S.-Mexico border for Red Cross Red Crescent magazine.2009

John Kopchinski PfizerFormer Pfizer sales representative and West Point graduate[127] whose whistleblower (“qui tam”) lawsuit launched a massive government investigation into Pfizer’s illegal and dangerous marketing of Bextra, a prescription painkiller. Pfizer paid $1.8 billion to the government to settle the case, including a $1.3 billion criminal fine, which was the largest criminal fine ever imposed for any matter.[128] The Bextra settlement was part of a $2.3 billion global settlement – the largest healthcare fraud settlement in U.S. history.[129]2009

Robert RudolphJoseph FaltaousSteven WoodwardJaydeen Vincente Eli LillyFour sales representatives for Eli Lilly filed separate qui tam lawsuits against the company for illegally marketing the drug Zyprexa for uses not approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Eli Lilly pled guilty to actively promoting Zyprexa for off-label uses, particularly for the treatment of dementia in the elderly. The $1.415 billion penalty included an $800 million civil settlement and a $515 million criminal fine—the largest criminal fine for an individual corporation in United States history.[130] The four whistle blowers shared in 18%, or $78,870,877, of the federal share of the civil settlement.[131]2009

Alexander Barankov Belarus Ministry of Internal AffairsClaimed corruption among Belarusian police; charged with bribery and fraud in 2009; became a political refugee in Ecuador in 2010; as of August 2012[update], faces extradition back to Belarus.[132]2010s[edit]2010

Chelsea Manning (Bradley Manning) United States ArmyUS Army intelligence analyst who released the largest set of classified documents ever, mostly published by WikiLeaks and their media partners. The material included videos of the July 12, 2007 Baghdad airstrike and the 2009 Granai airstrike in Afghanistan; 250,000 United States diplomatic cables; and 500,000 army reports that came to be known as the Iraq War logs and Afghan War logs.[133] Manning was convicted of violating the Espionage Act and other offenses and sentenced to 35 years in prison.[134]2010-2011

Samy Kamkar Apple, Microsoft, and GoogleComputer hacker who exposed the illicit, global mobile phone tracking of all users, regardless of GPS or Location Services settings, on the Apple iPhone, Google Android and Microsoft Windows Phone mobile devices, and their transmission of GPS and Wi-Fi information to their parent companies, which led to a series of class-action lawsuits and a privacy hearing on Capitol Hill.[135][136]2011

Michael Woodford Olympus CorporationCorporate president, revealed past losses concealed and written off via excessive fee payments[137]2011

M. N. Vijayakumar Indian Administrative ServiceExposed serious corrupt practices at high levels.[138][139]2012

Ted Siska Ward Diesel Filter Systems, Inc. of New YorkWard Diesel Filter Systems Inc. has agreed to pay the United States $628,000 to resolve allegations that it knowingly submitted false claims to federal agencies under a contract to provide diesel exhaust filtering systems for fire engines through the General Services Administration’s (GSA) Multiple Award Schedule program, the Justice Department announced on June 26, 2012. The government’s investigation was initiated by a lawsuit, U.S. ex rel. Siska v. Ward Diesel Filter Systems, Inc., filed under the False Claims Act’s qui tam provisions, which permit private parties to sue for false claims on behalf of the United States and to share in any recovery. The whistleblower, Ted Siska, will receive $94,200 of the settlement.[140]2012

Vijay Pandhare Chief Engineer, Irrigation Department, Government of MaharashtraPandhare was a bureaucrat belonging to the Irrigation Department in the Indian state of Maharashtra. He blew the whistle on the Maharashtra Irrigation Scam of 2012 that led to the resignation of Maharashtra Deputy Chief MinisterAjit Pawar.[141]2013

David P. Weber United States Securities and Exchange CommissionWeber, an attorney and Certified Fraud Examiner, was the assistant inspector general of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. He learned of misconduct in the Bernard Madoff and Allen Stanford investigations, and of suspected hacking by a unit of the Chinese military.[142][143] He insisted that agency management report the misconduct and hacking to Congressional Oversight Committees, but instead was terminated for supposedly unrelated reasons. Shortly after his lawsuit became public, news stories broke that the People’s Liberation Army compromised information technology at 160 U.S. corporations and government agencies.[144][145]2013

Edward Snowden National Security AgencyBooz Allen Hamilton contractor Snowden released classified material on ­top-secret NSA programs including the PRISM surveillance program to The Guardian and The Washington Post in June 2013.[146][147]

Jack. B. Palmer Disclosed abuse of Indian laborers at Infosys.

Erin Brockovich created the modern whistleblower program and developed local participation programs which had a profound effect on process.

There are so many others to acknowledge and thank, this list will continue to grow…


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